Canister Purge Valve Replacement

Canister Purge Valve Replacement: Here’s What You Need To Know

If you have to waste time during your morning rushes just to start or vehicle, we might have to warn you that there are bigger issues with your vehicle. From inefficient fuel economy to the check engine light signaling up when it is not required to, a damaged canister purge valve can cause a series of headaches. If your check engine light is signaling a possible purge valve failure, it’s time to look at options for a canister purge valve replacement.

If you don’t know already, there’s an almost invisible and rather small part of your car’s evaporative emission control or EVAP system. As small as the engine part is, the canister purge valve is an integral part of your vehicle. When it gets damaged, you might face more issues than you’d expect.

We’re not saying that canister purge valve replacement is a mammoth of a task. However, identifying the symptoms and diagnosing the exact problems of the valve can be quite a challenge. This article dives deep into the various explanations causing the canister purge valve to be damaged.

With that, we have elaborated what signs and symptoms might indicate a possible purge valve failure. We’ve included the following chapters in this article:

What Is The Canister Purge Valve?

If you haven’t given the idea of 100s of chemically-charged gasoline going into your vehicle and getting vaporized in the process, a thought, it’s time to do so. If these toxic and heavy gasoline vapors could escape our cars and pass into the environment, the list of harmful effects that these vapors could have on humans, animals, and the general environment is detrimental, to say the least.

That’s where the Evaporative Emission Control System (EVAP) or your vehicle comes into play. When the internal combustion engines produce fuel vapor, the EVAP makes sure that none of the emissions are released to the environment. A part of that emission control system is a canister purge valve.

Canister Purge Valve Replacement

Thanks to a working EVAP system are most modern cars that make them slightly less harsh to the environment, compared to vehicles without emission control. The working of an emissions control mechanism is simple because it only creates a seal with the toxic gases. While the canister filters out these very emissions, the valve controls in an amount that it let in and out of the vehicle.

Purpose

Although small, the purpose of the canister purge valve is to channel the housed emissions back into the engine when the combustions in the engine take place. Part of the operations and contributions of the valve is to ensure that the EVAP system runs without hindrance.

Not just that, how much fuel emission is being transferred to your vehicle’s engine is also a matter of concern. Burnt-out gases of large amounts can also damage your vehicle and hence the canister purge valve is also responsible to control what kind of fuel and how much fuel emission can be allowed to enter the car’s engine intake manifold.

Like all valves, the problems start to be exhibited to the driver when the valve movement becomes inaccurate. Most commonly, the canister purge valve might get stuck and not open at all. Similarly, the purge valve might also become open stuck, meaning the flow of the vapors cannot be controlled anymore.

Although this might sound like a little inconvenience, you would notice significant changes in your driving experience almost immediately. That’s precisely why new models of vehicles are designed with electrical canister purge valves and they are commonly known as solenoids now.

The automatic valve mechanism in these cars operates only when the car is started and driver for some time consistently. When you stop the car, the valve is also sealed accordingly.

How Does It work?

Once you are aware of what the canister purge valve is, it could be helpful to know how the seal works.

As the valve seal makes way for the emissions to be transferred to the engine intake manifold, the valve opens smoothly. In the vacuum line and between the manifold and the containment canister, the valve is located in such a position that you can either operate it electrically or via the vacuum.

The timing at which the valve opens is critical and hence a stuck or inflexible valve opening can cause vapors to go haywire instead of passaging towards the engine manifold from the canister. Since modern cars are equipped with solenoid purge valves, once you start the engine, the housed gasoline vapor is channeled to the engine.

Canister Purge Valve Replacement Here’s What You Need To Know

Once it gets into the combustion chambers, the gases are burnt. So how are the flow and the quality of the gases being passed into the engine controlled? Sensors are responsible for the task of timing the opening of the valve. That is what determines how much vapor is passed into the engine. Once the entire housed vapor has entered the manifold, the valve will automatically close, thanks to the sensors.

PCM

The sensor of the solenoid delaying instructions would miscalculate the timing of the opening and closing of the valve. Today’s cars that run electronic purge valves are equipped with the powertrain control module, also known as PCM.

The PCM of the car is like a processor that receives the signals and messages from the valve and instructs another car component about when to deliver its action. Not just the canister purge valve, the PCM is what controls the operation of airflow, circulation of coolant, automatic transmissions as well as exhaust.

PCMs are an intelligent part of a car’s unit and ensure the smooth operation and performance of the canister purge valve and the whole emission control unit itself.

As efficient as they can be, the slightest flaw in airflow or vapor flow can have the digital system be thrown out of order. This is because the PCM system is unable to work if the input, in this case, the signals from the valve sensors, is not proper.

Causes Of Purge Valve Damage

Damage to the canister purge valve may occur due to several reasons. Here are a few possible explanations of why your purge valve may need replacement:

Sensor Failure

The purge valve operates while being dependent on how the sensor works in conjunction with the PCM of the vehicle.

Any possible digital failure results in the valve being stuck in a position or is opening and closing at the wrong timings.

Clogging In The Supply Lines

If adequate vapor flow does not pass through the supply lines, the sensors will signal the PCM the same. Eventually, the PCM will also direct the valve to open or close when there is still vapor in the clogged supply lines.

Clogged supply lines could occur due to dirt and grime accumulating, and it is more common when maintenance of vehicle internal parts is neglected.

Environmental Conditions

Physical scratches, dents, and cracks are also causes of a bad canister purge valve.

Mostly extreme weather causes internal engine parts like the valve to become cracked. Such physical damages require immediate purge valve replacement.

EVAP Leak

The canister purge valve operates in sync with the rest of the EVAP system. The working of the purge valve is merely a reaction that comes due to the emissions flow into the engine intake manifold.

If there is a leak in the EVAP system, you can expect to see the check engine light illuminate indicating that the canister purge has been compromised.

Canister Purge Valve Replacement: Symptoms Of Bad Purge Valve

When your canister purge valve replacement becomes inventible, you would be able to understand the degree of damage through a few signs and symptoms. Have a lookout for these symptoms to make sure you can stop your EVAP system from going into complete blip.

Canister Purge Valve Replacement: Check Engine Light Appears

Any broken sensor mechanism, whether it’s the oxygen airflow or valve damage, your check engine light will flicker and illuminate at every internal sensor issue. One of the primary symptoms of a bad purge valve is the vehicle’s check engine light turning on.

As mentioned before, the PCM of the car would consequently interpret the unstable sensor reading of the valve opening, and in turn, signal the check engine light to illuminate instantly. Every time your dashboard light turns on, there is little reason to believe that your pulse valve is broken.

This is because the flickering of the warning check engine light can indicate a lot of issues including faulty injectors, vacuum leaks, wiring disconnections, and unprecedented emissions.  Warning messages on the check engine light can be a simple “check” in yellow or red color, P0441, or EVAP texts.

Canister Purge Valve Replacement: Idling Problems

Idling is the phenomenon when a car is unable to move despite having the fuel or power to do so. Rough idling may cause a car to slip, as opposed to when the car is idling in a smooth ride.

If you’ve been noticing rough idling in your vehicle, it could be due to numerous reasons. One of them is also a bad canister purge valve that can be caused when the RPM is low. In worst cases, the rough idling can leave your vehicle jerking, almost violently. This is mainly caused by a vacuum leak when the purge valve does not open or close when it is needed to.

Canister Purge Valve Replacement: Inefficient Engine Performance

In simple words, a faulty canister purge valve would directly affect the performance of your car, although you would be able to drive it still. For starters, the ride you experience would not be smooth. Additionally, you would particularly notice a dip in the performance and acceleration when you try to drive on hilly or steeply areas.

Canister Purge Valve Replacement: Bad Fuel Economy

Another symptom of a bad purge valve involves the inefficiency in fuel economy. If the fuel vapor is dissipated outside, you would be able to notice a significant wastage of fuel economy. Your car will use up more gasoline every mileage of the way.

Since this could worsen the gas mileage, you cannot expect your car to cover the same distance on the same fuel as it used to with a functioning purge valve.

Canister Purge Valve Replacement: Car Starting Issues

When a purge valve operation gets disrupted, the internal combustion causes the airflow to become broken. In turn, you could experience problems when you start the car every time.

With that, a bad purge causing vacuum leak creates worse problems like complete engine stalling.

Canister Purge Valve Replacement: Emission Test Flop

What better way to confirm that your purge valve is damaged than an emission test failure. An emission check is a specialized test created to check the amount of smog that is being released from the tailpipe of the engine.

Can You Drive With A Damaged Purge Valve?

Similar to how it is possible to drive with a damaged engine part, you can also drive with a faulty purge valve, but only to create further damages to your engine’s vehicle in the long and short runs. The canister purge valve is not an independent part of the emission control unit.

Would it cause your engine to burst or set your car on fire? It shouldn’t but that does not make driving with a broken purge valve effective, neither in terms of your car’s engine nor in terms of the added cost of replacing parts.

The EVAP and the containment canister is a single unit that only works in sync with the purge valve. In case you continue to drive a car with a damaged purge valve, you might push the charcoal canister into harmful ways. In turn, the internal combustion process might be put into a frenzy of failures as well.

Possible Effects

There might not be any immediate or noticeable effects if you continue to drive with a faulty canister purge valve that needs to be looked after, and you can surely drive for significant miles. Yet, it is vital to note that every mild that you drive with a bad purge valve, damages your car’s engine parts and primarily the EVAP system a little bit more every drive.

You would surely be alerted with black smoke and worse idling within a few drives, eventually leading to more serious damages such as a failed catalytic converter.

We feel almost obliged to warn you how catalytic converters are expensive to replace and more to repair, so much so that there have been myriads of drivers who are worried about the recent rise in converter thefts.

If you are not willing to spend another $2000 to make a catalytic converter replacement, you need to stop driving your car immediately if you see symptoms of a bad canister purge valve.

Canister Purge Valve Replacement Cost

When you notice the symptoms of a possible bad purge valve and realize you can no longer drive with a faulty one, the first thing that comes to mind is how much might it cost to replace the valve.

In the case of car engine parts, the cost of replacement is comparatively lower than the cost of repairing because of the added mechanic charges.

You may expect to spend anywhere in the range of $70 to $200 in total to completely replace the old purge valve with a new one. The parts only would cost about $40 to $150, depending on where you buy them from. If you add a professional mechanic’s cost, you would need to add another $50 to $100. You can save this money if you are planning to be your mechanic!

When you are planning a budget for your canister purge valve replacement cost, you would need to keep a few factors in mind. Luxury cat fittings and digital sensors surge the price of repair costs of modern cars. That’s why models with PCM might require more cost to replace the purge valve.

Other than the model of the car, your location is what determines how much your mechanic will charge on an hourly basis. In places such as California, the replacement costs are sky-high due to the expensive mechanic rate. Likewise, states like South Dakota and West Virginia mechanics charge a lot lower.

Canister Purge Valve Replacement: Does My Valve Need Replacement?

When all signs and symptoms are indicating that your purge valve is damaged, you would have to make sure whether your canister seal requires a complete replacement or repair work.

One way is to have your purge valve tested for confirmation. There are a few ways in which you can test your purge valve and the appropriate method can best be decided by reading the instruction manual. This is because the make and model of your vehicle will determine what type of test would concur and suit best.

Primarily there are two ways to test. The first is a simple method where you would require removing the valve and blowing it into one of the supply line’s holes. If you notice that air is still passing through the hole, you have an open valve stuck. The valve is closed if you notice that the air you blew into the hole is stuck inside.

The vacuum test method is sometimes recommended by self-taught mechanics which is more like a double check on the simple method. Here you need to connect the vacuum gauge hose around the intake manifold before starting the engine. Building enough pressure makes the valve open. In turn, you would also need a 12V power supply and a vacuum tester.

With the pressure already supplied, if you connect each end of the power supply to the purge to see if it opens. If the valve opens within a host time then you can say that your valve does not require replacement. If it does not open, you would need to look for a mechanic immediately!

Canister Purge Valve Replacement: Can I Do It By Myself?

You can replace the canister purge valve yourself, but only if you have mechanic expertise and a bit of experience replacing one or two before.

If you are completely new to scrutinizing and fixing an engine part, it could be a difficult task for you. This video could help you understand the purge valve system a little better.

If you are willing to replace the purge yourself, you should be able to find the valve, to begin with.

The location of the purge valve can be a little tricky to identify if you don’t have some prior knowledge about the possible locations of the valve. The spot could slightly vary depending on the engine and primarily on the model of the car in question.

If you are looking at the engine of the car from the front side of the engine, you can inspect the left area of the throttle body, also referred to as the butterfly valve. There, you would be able to find a purge valve on the engine intake. While this is fairly easy to find, another possible spot that might require you to look into is at the back of the fuel tank.

Depending on what type of car you use, if your purge valve is located on the engine, it would not require much time for the complete canister purge valve to be replaced. Yet, if the canister valve is with the fuel tank, it could take a mechanic up to 2 hours to replace the valve.

A purge valve is an integral part of your EVAP system, faults in the replacement could leave to complete engine stalling as well. Hence, all being said, it is always the best practice to trust the hands of a professional mechanic.

Final Thoughts

The EVAP system of your vehicle’s engine is responsible for the control of both the quality and quality of fuel gas that goes into the engine intake manifold from the charcoal canister. The flow of this very emission is controlled by the canister purge valve.

When there is a possible failure of this valve, your car’s performance drops within a few miles of the drive. From difficulty to start the car to poor fuel mileage, the problems and symptoms of a bad purge valve are bothersome.

Hence, canister purge valve replacement stands out to be a vital task, whether you decide to call on a mechanic or want to do it yourself. You may also want to run a test or two to ensure whether you’d need to replace the valve or repair it.

Approved Tools

These tools have been tried and tested by our team, they are ideal for fixing your car at home.

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